Diseases of Civilization
Diseases of civilization are either caused by civilization or so greatly aggravated that it is almost the same thing as caused. Infantile paralysis is an example of the latter. Under primitive conditions with poor sanitation and contaminated water, everybody was frequently exposed to poliovirus from an early age. Poliomyelitis is the modern synonym for infantile paralysis. The new name resulted from the disease no longer being a disease of infancy. The constant exposure to the virus under primitive conditions meant that most infants’ first contact with the virus was while they still had immunity from maternal antibody and colostrum resulting in an inapparent infection conferring long term immunity. Even in the 1950s when epidemics were prevalent, there were about 1000 in-apparent mild illnesses for every case of paralysis. But the lack of early exposure because of modern sanitation resulted in many paralytic cases in young adults.
Asthma is becoming more prevalent in modern times for
reasons that are not entirely clear. It
is known that allergic individuals have enhanced immunity to multicellular
parasites such as hookworm and schistosomiasis. Perhaps if these immune mechanisms are not pinned down resisting
multicellular parasites they “spin their wheels” resisting ragweed
pollen and cat dander, a nonconstructive endeavor. Other forms of chronic lung disease are even more associated with
civilization than asthma. Consider
silicosis, asbestosis, farmer’s lung, silo filler’s disease, emphysema and even
cancer of the lung.
The metabolic syndrome is a modern concept which includes obesity, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia with more than one of them present in most individual cases. The tie-in to civilization is abundance of food and less physical activity. In my experience in the underdeveloped world in Afghanistan from 1968 to 1970, the only group at risk for metabolic syndrome was very important people with plenty of servants. Perhaps under truly primitive conditions, even very important people would not have been that important.
Arsenic poisoning from deep wells in northeastern, India and adjacent Bangladesh has become a major problem in recent decades. These wells were drilled unnecessarily deep by contractors paid by the foot. The deeper aquifers turned out to be geologically contaminated by arsenic hearing strata. This qualifies as a disease of civilization on several counts. Ironically, the wells were created to provide safe water.
Lead pipes were used by the Romans in their water systems and the resulting lead poisoning probably contributed to the decline of the empire especially because affluent leaders could afford luxury plumbing. If the Roman aristocrats didn’t get lead poisoning from plumbing, they could get it from wine stored in lead containers. Wine dissolves more lead than water and the resulting lead acetate imparts a pleasant taste.
that retired London police horses were the source of
the bone meal. Small doses of lead can
As a physician, I am entitled to be somewhat authoritative about diseases of civilization and how to mitigate them. Two years in an underdeveloped country gave me a gut feeling that if the rest of the world lived as we Americans do, mankind could trash the planet in one more generation. I resolved never again to buy a car which didn’t get at least 30 miles per gallon, to use public transportation when feasible, build an energy efficient house, conserve water, compost appropriate wastes, live in a compact community where most errands are within walking distance, and minimize lawn area to avoid temptation to use unnecessary chemicals. Note that the net cost of these measures is less than zero.
John A. Frantz